Grammar

12 Verb Tenses Overview

I study English every day.

Two years ago, I studied English in England.

If you are having problems, I will help you study English.

I am going to study English next year.

I am studying English now.

I was studying English when you called yesterday.

I will be studying English when you arrive tonight.

I am going to be studying English when you arrive tonight.

I have studied English in several different countries.

I had studied a little English before I moved to Australia.

I will have studied every tense by the time I finish this course.

I am going to have studied every tense by the time I finish this course.

I have been studying English for five years.

I had been studying English for five years before I moved to Australia.

I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.

I am going to have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.

Conditionals

The Four Basic Types

    1. Zero Conditional – to talk about something that is a general truth or fact. It is usually fixed to happen.

If + subject  simple present object, + subject simple present object

► If you heat water, it boils afterwards.

 

    1. First Conditional – to talk about something we believe is sure to happen because there is a good reason.

If  + subject simple present object,  + subject will verb object

► If you study hard, you will get better grades.

 

    1. Second Conditional – to talk about something that is imaginary or impossible to happen in the future (or at present).

If + subject simple past object, + subject would verb object

► If you got a high score, I would cut my ten fingers.

 

    1. Third Conditional – to talk about something that was possible in the past but did not happen. It usually expresses regret.

If + subject past perfect object, + subject would have pp object

► If I had studied my lessons, I would have got a better score.

Mixed Conditionals

We used mixed conditionals when the time in the if clause is different from the time in the result clause.

The Structure of the Five Mixed Conditionals

    1. If subject past perfect object + subject would verb object | PAST SITUATION + PRESENT RESULT

      ► If I had taken his advice, I would feel happy right now.
      (I didn’t take his advice, so I am not happy now.)

    2. If subject past perfect object + subject would be verb-ing object | PAST SITUATION + FUTURE RESULT 

      ► If I hadn’t broken my wrist, I would be playing tennis later.
      (I broke my wrist, so I wouldn’t play tennis later.)

    3. If subject past simple object + subject would have pp object | PRESENT SITUATION + PAST RESULT

      ► If I trusted him, I might have listened to his advice.
      (I don’t trust him now, so I didn’t listen to his advice.)

    4. If subject past simple object + subject would be verb-ing object | PRESENT SITUATION + FUTURE RESULT

      ► If I was at home, I would be playing with my dog tomorrow.
      (I am not at home, so I can’t play with my dog tomorrow)

    5. If subject past continuous object + subject would verb object | FUTURE SITUATION + PRESENT RESULT

      ► If I wasn’t meeting my boss later, I would arrive at the meeting now.
      (I am meeting my boss later, so I am not at the meeting now)

The Wish Forms

    1. I wish + subject + simple past + object
      to talk about a situation which does not exist, but we wish it did
      to talk about a situation which exist, but we wish it did not

      I wish I were rich.(I am poor and I want my situation to change)

    2. I wish + subject + would + verb + object
      a situation is going on and you want it to change

      ► I wish you would stop talking. (You are annoyed by the noise of the person)

    3. I wish + subject + past perfect + object
      to talk about a past situation we regret

      I wish I had studied my lessons(I didn’t study and now I get very low scores)

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words used as joiners. Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

It usually forms looser connections than other conjunctions do. Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning or end. Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another: words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses.

  • for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

► I like cooking and eating, but I don’t like washing dishes afterwards. Sophie is clearly exhausted, yet she insists on dancing till dawn.

 

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after each one.

  • either. . .or
  • both. . . and
  • neither. . . nor
  • not only. . . but also

Not only am I finished studying for English, but I’m also finished writing my history essay. I am finished with both my English essay and my history essay.
Neither the black dress nor the grey one looks right on me.

 

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

These conjunctions join independent clauses together.

  • after all
  • in addition
  • next
  • also
  • incidentally
  • nonetheless
  • as a result
  • indeed
  • on the contrary
  • besides
  • in fact
  • on the other and
  • consequently
  • in other words
  • otherwise
  • finally
  • instead
  • still
  • for example
  • likewise
  • then
  • furthermore
  • meanwhile
  • therefore
  • hence
  • moreover
  • thus
  • however
  • nevertheless

 

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent (or “subordinate”) upon the other. A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence.

  • After
  • in order (that)
  • unless
  • although
  • insofar as
  • until
  • as
  • in that
  • when
  • as far as
  • lest
  • whenever
  • as soon as
  • no matter how
  • where
  • as if
  • now that
  • wherever
  • as though
  • once
  • whether
  • because
  • provided (that)
  • while
  • before
  • since
  • why
  • even if
  • so that
  • even though
  • upposing (that)
  • how
  • than
  • if
  • that
  • inasmuch as
  • though
  • in case (that)
  • till
►  I can stay out until the clock strikes twelve.